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TECHNICAL TEAM INVOLVED IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIODIVERSITY AT THE SÃO FRANCISCO SUGARPLANT FARMS

Professor Dr. José Roberto Miranda

PhD in Biological Sciences from the University of São Paulo. He completed his Master's Degree, in 1983, and Doctorate, in 1986, in General and Applied Ecology at the "Université des Sciences et Techniques de Montpellier" and at the "Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes," Paris Vième - Sorbonne, France. He has published more than a hundred technical and scientific papers, several book chapters and books in Brazil and abroad.

He served as a doctor professor at the Department of Ecology of the Institute of Biosciences of USP, where he supervised several Master's theses in ecology and taught undergraduate courses in Biological Sciences and Graduate courses in Ecology and Environmental Sciences at USP.

He has worked for more than 30 years as a researcher at EMBRAPA, where he conducts research in the agroecology area. Over his career, he has received several civil and military decorations, especially the "Peacemaker," "Suez Battalion," "Castelo Branco," and "Emeritus Collaborator" Awards, conferred by the Brazilian Army, the "Order of the São Joaquim Fort Medal," from the state of Roraima, and the "Merit Honor" of the Military Police of the State of São Paulo. He participated in numerous newspaper articles on ecology and the environment, among which in various editions of Globo Repórter, Globo Ecologia, and Repórter Eco. He has published several opinion articles on the environment, biodiversity, and on land management in the print media.

jose-roberto.miranda@embrapa.br

www.cnpm.embrapa.br

Vagner Roberto Ariedi Junior – Biologist holding a Master's Degree in Agroecology and Rural Development.

Dennys D. Beyer – MsC in Environmental Science

Marcelo Guimarães – MsC in Ecology

Sílvia Helena de Oliveira – Biologist

Daniel Cavanna – Biologist

Gisele Levi – Biologist

André Ferreira – Biologist

Maurício S. R. da Silva – Biologist

Lígia M. Avelar – Biologist

José Paulo Franzin - Technician

Literature

WILD FAUNA SAMPLING METHODS

A detecção, registro e identificação da fauna silvestre envolve uma grande quantidade de técnicas e procedimentos práticos. Independentemente das técnicas utilizadas no campo, a detecção e o registro das espécies deu-se de maneira direta, tanto visual como auditiva, e/ou indiretamente pela presença de vestígios, como pegadas, fezes, penas, ninhos, tocas, pelos, pelotas de regurgitação etc. Os grupos faunísticos foram amostrados através de combinações de métodos científicos baseados em literatura especializada, amplamente utilizados e empregados em estudos de fauna silvestre. Os métodos utilizados no estudo, para cada grupo faunístico, são descritos a seguir.

The HERPETOFAUNA (amphibians and reptiles) was sampled using these combined methods:

VISUAL SEARCH. Corresponding to diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal census, conducted within the area, moving slowly on foot in search of species in all environments (habitats) available to wildlife, and visually accessible, such as in swampy environments or areas with the accumulation of water, puddles and temporary ponds, reservoirs, dams, canals, drainage ditches, litter layer (litter), inside and in the foliage of plants, tree trunks, rocks and holes in the ground. The visual search was carried out with the aid and use of flashlights, hooks, and herpetologic clamps. The species that were found were recorded, identified, and photographed, when possible, and then released.

SEARCH THROUGH SOUNDS. This involved the search carried out to find and identify frogs by recording their vocalizations, done within the area, moving slowly on foot in all environments (habitats) available to wildlife, and visually accessible, such as in swampy environments or with the accumulation water, puddles and temporary ponds, reservoirs, dams, canals, drainage ditches, litter layer (litter), inside and in the foliage of plants, tree trunks, rocks and holes in the ground.

The search began after dusk, with the aid and use of flashlights and mini digital recorders for recording vocalizations and to play them back to attract the species and secure their identification, and ended at the time vocalizations ceased. The species that were heard and found were recorded, identified, and photographed, when possible, and then released.

SEARCH WITH VEHICLE. This was the search for species at night, done at the end of the Visual and Auditive Search activities. It was done within the area and its surroundings, moving in a car at a speed below 40 km/h through the tracks, the main roads, and access roads between environments (habitats) available to wildlife. The species that were found were recorded, identified and photographed when possible, and then released.

OCCASIONAL FINDINGS. These taking place when species were found and recorded when not in Visual, Auditory and Vehicle search. The species that were found were recorded, identified, and photographed, when possible, and then released.

Systematic orders and scientific names followed that adopted by the Brazilian Herpetological Society (SBH) and updated according to: SEGALLA, M.V.; CARAMASCHI, U.; CRUZ, C.A.G.; GARCIA, P.C.A.; GRANT, T.; HADDAD, C.F.B; LANGONE, J. 2012. Brazilian amphibians - List of species, e BÉRNILS, R.S.; COSTA, H.C. 2012. Brazilian reptiles - List of species.

The AVIFAUNA was sampled using these combined methods:

VISUAL AND AUDITIVE REGISTRATION. This corresponds to the survey and recording of the birds through a census, during walks at constant speeds for all environments (habitats) available to wildlife and visually accessible. The species were identified through observations made with the aid of binoculars and/or by identifying their vocalizations. Where necessary, the birds had their vocalizations recorded using a digital recorder equipped with a directional microphone.

INDIRECT EVIDENCE. Such as finding nests and feathers, were also considered. These data were used together and confirmed by consulting bibliographic and phonographic material.

The MASTOFAUNA was sampled using these combined methods:

VISUAL SEARCH AND ACTIVE SEARCH (DIRECT OBSERVATION). This was a diurnal, dusk, and night census conducted within the area, moving slowly on foot in search of species in all environments (habitats) available to wildlife, and visually accessible, such as in swampy environments or with the accumulation of water, edges of puddles, reservoirs, dams, canals, ditches, drainage ditches, litter layer (litter), trunks, rocks, and holes in the ground.

Direct observations (sightings) were used. The species that were found were recorded, identified, and photographed, when possible, and then released.

"PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAPS" (PTs). Throughout the study, and in accordance with equipment acquisition, two, four, six and eight camera traps (Tigrinus Digital-6.0D Model); two and five camera traps (Bushnell ThrophyCam model) were used with motion and infrared sensors. Attractive baits (fruit and prepared baits) were used both for carnivorous and frugivorous species.

The traps were installed at the edges and inside the environments (habitats), preferably at places where they might go through according to prior records and the identification of places where wildlife moved around in and used, such as tracks, footprints, signs of activity, and burrows. The systematic ordering and scientific names were done in accordance with: REIS, N.R.; PERACCHI, A.L.; PEDRO, W.A.; LIMA, I.P. Mamíferos do Brasil. 2011.

The combined methods were employed in areas that cross through and surround all ten environments (1. Organic sugarcane fields; 2. Exotic woods; 3. Wetlands with herbaceous plants; 4. Wetlands with riparian forests; 5. Restored native forests; 6. Mixed forests in regeneration; 7. Native forests; 8. Drainage ditches; 9. Forests in spontaneous regeneration, and 10. Field in spontaneous regeneration) available to the wildlife present in the agricultural areas belonging to the São Francisco Sugarmill and surroundings throughout the day, in the morning, at twilight and at night.

All methods were applied for a 30-minute period in each survey, and each survey campaign lasted three to five days. The sampling effort was sized to cover and include the ten different environments available to wildlife, but not necessarily equally distributed in wildlife environments or habitats, rather primarily those environments in which we obtained some sort of prior indication of the occurrence of the species, especially of wild mammals threatened with extinction, such as tracks, footprints, feces, carcasses, and visual and/or auditory records, etc.

Once observed and/or captured, individuals were registered and identified at the lowest possible taxonomic level (species), and then released, photographed, and recorded (vocalizations) when possible, for recording and for further identification, if necessary, at a later time through database comparisons. All records, whether direct and/or indirect, were marked as a species record, regardless of the method it was registered and identified through.

Most of the species records were made in the field. Direct and indirect records and species identification were confirmed in the laboratory using field guides or artificial species identification and classification keys. In addition, collections and benchmark scientific collections, specialized centers and scientific research institutions were also queried to eliminate any uncertainty about species identification.

Due to variable dynamic ecological conditions of the environment during the different seasons of the year, terrestrial vertebrate survey campaigns were carried out throughout the year. The cycle of seasonal variations, especially moisture and temperature, was considered concomitant to the possible fluctuations in settling composition, in terms of the biological activity and migratory behavior of certain species in all strata sampled

All surveys done to inventory the species in the field were conducted according to defined criteria and methodological approaches and using a previously prepared form, in regular campaigns made between July 2002 and May 2014, in 10 environments (habitats) mapped and available to the wildlife in agricultural areas of the São Francisco Sugarmill (ARIEDI JUNIOR, 2013).

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